Health Professional Development

Learning how to coproduce healthcare services.

This community of practice, made up of resident physicians in Jönköping, Sweden, explores how to coproduce healthcare service. Key to the learning journey is ongoing work with a ‘learning partner’ -- a local community member with lived experience of chronic illness. Members progress, with their learning partners, through the steps of a learning cycle focused on building empathy, understanding the current state, incorporating science-informed practice, learning integrative thinking, and generalizing lessons learned.

In addition to the learning partners sometimes known as patients, several guests have intermittently joined the group to share their experiences and insights. Dr. Stephen Liu presented on ‘OurNotes,’ an innovation that facilitates coproduction by allowing patients to review doctors’ notes ahead of their appointments and providing a platform for patients to plan discussion topics for upcoming visits.

Detailed exploration of Dr. Frank Davidoff’s work on heterogeneity has fostered rich discussion within the group as learners grapple with the tension between standard processes and personalized solutions. Dr. Kasey Boehmer and colleagues’ I CAN tool has also sparked conversation as a resource for building empathy and understanding the resources and constraints individuals sometimes known as patients bring to healthcare services.

Related readings

Davidoff F. Can Knowledge About Heterogeneity in Treatment Effects Help Us Choose Wisely?. Ann Intern Med. Epub ahead of print 8 November 2016;166:141–142. doi: 10.7326/M16-1721.

Davidoff F. Heterogeneity: we can't live with it, and we can't live without it. BMJ Quality & Safety 2011;20:i11-i12.

Davidoff F. Heterogeneity Is Not Always Noise: Lessons From Improvement. JAMA. 2009;302(23):2580–2586. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.1845.

Boehmer KR, Hargraves IG, Allen S V, et al. Meaningful conversations in living with and treating chronic conditions: development of the ICAN discussion aid. BMC Health Serv Res 2016;16:514. doi: 10.1186/s12913-016-1742-6.


For more information, please contact Joy McAvoy at